It is specifically concerned with the nature, sources and limitations of knowledge. On the one hand, it presents a new methodological approach to evaluate epistemological conceptions which advances NOS research allowing specific comparisons and hypothesis testing. The teachers in Chen’s (2006) study found that it was harder, more frustrating, and required a greater effort to answer the VNOS in the time allocated than to answer the VOSE (a VOSTS-based instrument). Scientific inquiry is only one epistemological approach to knowledge. NOS issues have been adopted as curriculum content in the reforms of science education around the world, and consequently, NOS topics should also be a part of science teacher education (Eurydice, 2011; Next Generation Science Standard [NGSS], 2013). Contributions of a quantitative assessment methodology. Neither students nor teachers understand the role that theories, laws, hypotheses, models, creativity, technology, tentativeness and scientific methods play in science. In the latter, the two groups were generally not found to differ from each other, although the science students displayed less sophisticated beliefs (i.e., about the cultural dependency of scientific theories), and the science teacher education students scored lowest on all dimensions. Such an explicit design allows straightforward and extensive use, replications, instrument improvements and associated data management through critical analysis of the results. Epistemology was defined as “the origin, nature, limits, methods, and justification of human knowledge” (Hofer 2002, p. 4). The standardized instrument devised in this paper, based on the VOSTS pool, is oriented towards coping with some current challenges of NOS research and teaching (assessment), which in turn provide reasons to choose quantitative instruments to assess NOS conceptions. The Nature of Science as the global framework for epistemology in Science Education Ángel VÁZQUEZ-ALONSO, María-Antonia MANASSERO-MAS, Antonio GARCÍA-CARMONA and Marisa MONTESANO DE TALAVERA Science education research needs standardized, valid and reliable instruments to evaluate NOS for diverse reasons: to provide trustworthy common grounds for research results and to foster NOS teaching, providing practical tools for teachers (Chen, 2006; Lederman, 2007). Liu's review (Liu, 2012) adds three different instruments: Views about Sciences Survey (VASS) (Halloun & Hestenes, 1998), Thinking about Science Survey Instrument (TSSI) (Cobern & Loving, 2002) and Views on Science and Education (VOSE) (Chen, 2006). The notion of authentic evaluation has been introduced into general education to aid in the evaluation of complex learning, such as performances or actions in real settings ("close to real”). On the other hand, reliance on quantitative scales and questionnaires has produced criticisms pointing to methodological shortcomings and poor validity or reliability. We have elevated this focus to the status of a strand for several reasons. Science teachers' understanding of epistemology unfortunately reflects similar naïve patterns to those observed in students. %���� The construct ''nature of science (NOS)" refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, and/or the values and assumptions inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). The qualitative approach has its own unquestionable merits to penetrate the complex web of individuals’ ideas; although it also suffers from semantic problems, the categories of analysis are often idiosyncratic, not very explicitly defined, and hardly ever equivalent among studies (Deng et al., 2011). involved in scientific practices, which depict science as a human activity aimed at gaining valid knowledge.  Scholars do not agree on a precise definition or delimitation of the NOS field, which is acknowledged as complex, controversial, multifaceted, and changing over time, although these disagreements do not impede researching or teaching NOS issues (Erduran & Dagher, 2014; Matthews, 2012). ), NOS embodies knowledge "about" science (Osborne, Collins, Ratcliffe, Millar & Duschl, 2003). (Coll, 2012; Lederman, 2007). Indeed, this reason does not try to unify the field though it advances NOS research, for instance, in some of the critical lines identified by Lederman (2007) for future NOS research (effectiveness of interventions, development over time, factors that affect development, change of teachers' conceptions during classroom practice, etc. This process has been marked, successively, by the transfer of epistemic sovereignty to the “social” domain, by the rediscovery of ontology and by attention to constitutive normativity and the political implications of knowledge. The approach is extensive, flexible, functional, meaningful and standardized, and it easily allows adaptable applications, statistical hypothesis testing between groups, across treatments, or over time. Evaluation of epistemology conceptions within the Nature of Science framework <> There is some controversy about the most suitable NOS contents to include in the curriculum at the pre-college level, though different scholarly proposals do share some coincidences. However, there is disagreement among the philosophers of science, historians of science, sociologists of science, scientists and science educators about a specific conception of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, … 3 0 obj Most studies (54%) combine several (two or more) methods to acquire their data, while the rest (46%) use just a single method. The first concern clearly relates to the question: "What is the NOS?" NOS refers to the values, suppositions, scientific practices, community, society, and technology, etc. Overlap and distinction between NOS, epistemology, and authentic science inquiry Nature of science. Richard Feynman wrote, “It is whether or not the theory gives predictions that agree with experiment. Date Written: October 2, 2013. One of these methodologies is Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Bache & Hayton, 2012). Many empirical studies using different methods and instruments have consistently found a broad collection of deficits in epistemology views. ); this paper exemplifies this point. French philosophers then gave the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as philosophy of science. This paper focuses on the evaluation of epistemological conceptions, crossing various concerns of NOS research, teaching and learning. The instrument explicitly shows all the items, explains the method to obtain the scores, the interpretations of the scores, and its theoretical foundations. In response to the criticisms of quantitative instruments to cope with the challenges of assessment in NOS research and to faithfully represent the respondents' conceptions, the present study uses an instrument that is empirically developed (largely avoiding the immaculate perception) and based on a multiple-rating response model, which eludes forced choice (Vázquez & Manassero, 1999). Some additional questionnaires are listed in the table of Appendix A. We view understanding of the nature and structur… Partial accounts of quantitative evaluation instruments in the literature have contributed to the invisibility of some available instruments. What constitutes a sophisticated understanding of NOS, or epistemology of science? This will be reviewed next together with the notion of the nature of science. Lederman (2007) displays a huge list of instruments for the period 1954-1992, although for recent years, he just refers to the five-form VNOS, the 114-item Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992) and the Critical Incidents Scale (Nott & Wellington, 1995). and quantitative (ordinal Likert-type scales, multiple-choice and multiple-rating questionnaires, grids, etc.). Standardization is especially well suited to compare individual profiles of respondents' NOS conceptions, which facilitate researcher and teachers’ evaluations of students, thus fostering the progress of NOS research and teaching. <>>> Science issuesinpropo-sitional outputs that we seek to support with sufficient evidence that they are worthy of belief. in order to better unveil the respondent's real conceptions (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992; Chen, 2006; Lederman et al., 2002). 2. learners’ NOS views, the reader is referred to Lederman et al. NOS can be generally defined as the epistemology of science or the values and beliefs inherent in the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). One important underpinning for learning science is students understanding of the nature and structure of scientific knowledge and the process by which it is developed. (2006) studied non-science students, and Liu and Tsai (2008) compared arts and science graduate students (including an initial teacher education group). Educational evaluation has grown into a vast field of research. The phrase “nature of science” (NOS) may refer to the epistemology of science or the principles and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). Ideology, Epistemology, Pedagogy and the National Curriculum for Science: the influence on primary science ... of science and design and technology, whilst Jennings (1992) makes a ... (Lederman & Zeidler, 1987). 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